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tv   PBS News Hour Weekend  PBS  March 1, 2014 5:30pm-6:01pm PST

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♪ >> on this dugs for saturday, march 1st, russia's parliament defies president obama and authorizes sending troops to ukraine. ukraine mobilizes its troops. in our signature segment nearly 70 years after the end of world war ii germany is still going after former nazis for their role in the holocaust. >> translator: because of their age, these men may never reach trial or go to prison, but it is just and right that we go after them. and some of america's youngest ush know farmers. the secret of their success. next on pbs news hour weekend. >> pbs news hour weekend is made possible by lewis b. and louise
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hershfeld, judy employ josh weston, joyce b. hail, the wallock family. the sheryl and phillip millstein family, bernard and irene schwartz, rosiland p. walter. corporate funding is provided by mutual of america, designing customized, individual, and retirement products. that's why we're your retirement company. additional support is provided by and by the corporation for public broadcasting and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. from the tish studios. good evening. thanks for joining us. there's been a dramatic escalation of tension surrounding the situation in ukraine. ukraine tonight put its military forces on full combat alert and warned that russian military intervention in ukraine would be the beginning of war. this hours after the russian parliament voted unanimously to
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authorize the deployment of russian troops in ukraine. earlier today russian forces effectively seized control of crimea, an area that has been part of ukraine for the past 60 years, but is home to the russian black sea fleet and skirmishes between pro-ukrainian and pro-russian loyalists have already broken out in ukraine. the vote to authorize russian troops to ukraine came less than 24 hours after president obama called on russia to respect ukraine's sovereignty and warned of costs to russia if it did not. a convoy of more than 20 russian military vehicles, some carrying troops, was observes traveling to crimea, and ukraine accused russia from sending troops into the region. russia kwa says the troops had already been deployed to guard important sites, including russian facility. for more about you will of this we're joined by charles kutchin, with the council on foreign relations. what does this vote in the
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russian parliament mean today? >> it authorizes russia to use force in ukraine. it appears it happened after the fact in the sense that over the last 24 hours we have reports of troop movement, of russian movement from russia proper into crimea. the russians are saying that that's occurring under the pretext of the troops that are already there, and so that's a large contingent, some 15,000, but it looked pretty clear that they're doing more than just rotating troops. those troops have been out in the field, and the russian parliament has also called for more of the withdrawal of the ambassador in the united states in response to the speech that obama gave yesterday. so clearly the temperature is rapidly rising, and russia seems to want to escalate the situation, not to back down. >> what about the possible e.u. response? they're scheduled to have more crisis talks a second time in a couple of weeks. what can they do? >> well, they're really moving, i think, on two fronts.
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one is to move as quickly as possible on putting together some kind of economic package because ukraine is teetering on the edge of default, and the united states, the e.u., and the imf are working together to come up with a package, maybe as high as $15 billion. that's what the russians initially offered to president jankovich. that's what the protests began and toppled him. the second conversation, which i'm guessing is taking place as we speak, is one about a response to what has occurred. president obama said yesterday there will be costs, and it looked like russia is throwing down the gauntlet, is using military force, wants to try to separate crimea to stir up trouble, and so the u.s. and the e.u. will be talking about what can we do to say to russia that this is unacceptable? >> what are the u.s. options? what does president obama have? >> well, i would say there are
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three arrows in the quiver. the first kind of response would be diplomatic, and that would be to say we're going to perhaps withdraw ambassadors from europe and the united states, those that are in moscow. it could involve a cancellation of the g-8 summit, which is scheduled in sochi in about two months. it could also involve a suspension of russia membership in the g-8. moving up the ladder would be sanctions of one sort. economic sanctions, freezing assets, denying visas to russian individuals that are deemed to be involved in the trouble in ukraine, and, finally, i'm guessing that there is also a conversation about some kind of military response. certainly it will not focus on a military response in ukraine, but it's conceivable that if this situation continues to
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escalate that we could see nato deploy troops in poland, in the baltics. that is to say they fortify the eastern frontier. >> will any of these possible actions that you outline be a deterrent on putin? >> i don't think that they will be moving in the sense that we are moving rapidly forward. russia seems to be doing whatever it can to stir up trouble. one huge question that looms on the horizon is russia going to interfere not just in crimea, but in the eastern o bloc, the eastern states of ukraine where you have about 40% of the population being ethnic russian. were that to happen, it's conceivable that we could see this widen into a civil war between a europe-oriented western ukraine and a russia- russia-oriented eastern ukraine. >> thanks so much. >> my pleasure. in beijing, china, today new
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regulations went into effect designed to limit air pollution caused by coal burning factories and plants. first time violators would face fines of 100,000, or approximately $16,000. fines would double for each subsequent offense. beijing suffers from severe air pollution. in southwestern china at least 27 people were killed and more than 100 wounded in a knife attack at a train station. authorities say uniform men brandishing knives attacked passengers before several were shot by police. state television called it a terror attack. back in the u.s., a major rainstorm continued to pound much of california which has been suffering through its worst drought in more than a century. more than 1,200 homes were evacuated yesterday following heavy rain. rainfall of three inches or more is expected throughout the weekend. mostly in southern california. the same storm producing all that rain in california is expected to move across the united states during the next 48 hours, dropping a wintry mix on
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portions of the united states and heavy snowfall in other areas. the release of once confidential clinton administration documents from the national archives offers insight into hillary clinton's thinking when she tried unsuccessfully to overhaul the nation's health care system in 1993. the documents reveal that the first lady expressed doubt that any proposal that included a mandate requiring the purchase of insurance could be approved by congress. mrs. clinton is quoted as saying it will be a much harder sell and warning that it could send what she called shock waves through the currently insured population. the affordable care act enacted in 2010 includes just such a mandate, if enactment and -- are -- and the national basketball association says it will donate proceeds from the sale of jason collins' number 98 jersey to two organization that is support gay rights. the league says the donations will total more than $100,000.
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♪ now to our signature segment. tonight reported from germany. nearly 70 years after the end of world war ii the government there is intensifying its efforts to educate young germans about nazi war crimes and is still pursuing those who committed them. just last week german police raided the homes of nine men suspected of serving as s.s. guards at the auschwitz death camp. three of those men, age 88 to 94 years old were arrested. last fall news hour correspondent william brangam reported the story that first aired in early january. >> from the outside it looks like a beautiful old estate. this is no private residence. inside investigators for the
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german federal government are pouring through decades old records searching for the last remaining nazi war criminals who might have escaped justice. this is part of a much broader national effort underway in germany to wrestle with the legacy of the holocaust. it includes the construction of memorials and museums at a record pace. the revamping of the nation's curriculum so that all german school kids get a fuller understanding of the nazi era. perhaps few are as crucial to this effort as this man. his name is kirk shrimp, and he runs the central office in germany and is still trying to bring former nazis to justice. >> right now only murder is personable. all other crimes have passed the statute of limitations and can no longer be punished. >> 31 years ago shrim was a local public prosecutor investigating robberies and murders and gun crime. when this history buff heard of an opening in a regional office investigating war criminals, he jumped at the chance.
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soon after a conversation with one holocaust survivor drove home the importance of this work. >> translator: i met an elderly jewish lady in new york at the end of the 1980s who had survived war. she said i have been waiting more than 40 years for a german official to be interested in my case. she told me it doesn't matter whether this person is put on trial or goes to prison. the most important thing is that you listen to my story. >> shrimm would like to see the man he is investigating prosecuted, but establishing their guilt in court has been complicated. following world war ii to convict a german soldier of murder prosecutors had to prove a direct personal responsibility for the killing of an innocent person, but several years ago germany successfully prosecuted 91-year-old retired ohio autoworker john demanyuk while he was at the death camp. now shrimm is hoping to use that
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legal press debt to prosecute dozens of others, including guards who work at the auschwitz canal camp. to build their cases they have not only talked to survivors, but drawing on the nazi's own met husband records and maps of the camp, investigators try to determine if guards or even low level workers like cooks knew about or witnessed the genocide. >> translator: for these cases we went to auschwitz personally and looked at the whole camp and checked whether it was possible to see from the kitchen whether a new train of prisoners was arriving or whether you could see the gas chamber. >> after completing their investigation, shrimm's office has recommended that 30 former auschwitz guards, men now in their late 80s and 90s, be prosecuted as accessories to murder. >> translator: i think on one hand it's important for the survivors, the victims that these cases are invested. on the other hand, it's also important for germany. during the war germany committed
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such terrible crimes that after the war germany had a terrible reputation. so we try to improve that reputation by prosecuting these cases. >> the current generation no longer has to directly confront what happened, so in my opinion the demanyuk trial, they have a function to explain again to people what happened, the crimes in that period. >> this is an 81-year-old holocaust survivor. as a child growing up in munich, and he his family lived next to the old jewish synagogue which the nazis destroyed. he and his family were eventually sent to a concentration camp. we sat down in munich's jewish museum directly across from the newly built synagogue. he says the priority today must be to understand the root of those crimes, not just prosecuting the perpetrators of them. >> we want the words to be said
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to make sure these crimes don't happen again. the emphasis should be on the time running up to the war and, of course, what's happening today. >> what's happening today is the rise of what he believes are frighteningly similar prejudices in german society, similar to what he experienced as a jewish child 70 years ago. according to the german government there's been a sharp rise in neo-nazi crimes in germany in recent years. most of them targeted at germany's growing immigrant population, including turks and immigrants who are called gypsies. for his part he counters that extremism by visiting classrooms, telling his story, and reminding students that there are echos of the past all around. >> translator: what shapes my life today are my childhood experiences of being mocked for being a jew, being isolated for being a jew, being attacked for being a gypsy, as people said at
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the time. this is something that must and i believe can be conveyed to young people. that's what drives me to be so active today. this ongoing remembrance of the holocaust is hardly limited to the few remaining survivors of the war. germany has been putting it in all its major cities and the commemoration also comes in more personal ways. >> i hope that it will never happen again, but if it would start again, it would start not anywhere, but here. in our minds. wolfrin is an artist in munich, the city in which adolph hitler called the capital of the nazi movement, in one city that has often been criticized for downplaying its role in the rise of the third reicht. >> they want the city very green
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for tourism, to invite all people from all over the world to come to munich, and it's all nice and wonderful and pretty and it's so marvelous. the black mark, the dark -- >> the current project has been to tell the stories of particular jewish families. to do so he paints these suitcases, similar to the ones. >> living here in the second floor. there lives a family, and they were killed.
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>> why? >> if you see a girl, a face, a story, the history of her. simply when you are placed before, it's another feeling. history comes here. >> in the end germany is doing what few nations have done before. not celebrating its greatest accomplishments, but building monuments to its darkest times, determined to keep history clearly in sight. >> learn about a new music app that german police are using to track neo-nazis. it's it's the news hour at finally tonight a story about some of america's youngest urban farmers. schoolchildren learning science while helping those in need. news hour's tracy wolf reports. >> this may look like another commercial greenhouse, but it's actually a working science lab for students in kindergarten up
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through the eighth grade. it's one of 12 that's been built as part of an initiative to put 100 greenhouse labs in new york city schools by 2020. greenhouses in secondary schools isn't new. using hydroponic growing systems is. a method of farming using water and nutrients instead of soil hydroponic farming allows students to learn urban sustainability. >> one of our programs stresses is the science education and the science behind the growing. >> cecil is the director of development for new york sunworks, a nonprofit that is dedicated to building science labs in urban schools. >> it's really not about urban farming for us. it's about talking about science. that's because most people care about food. urban farming is a great way to do it. >> new york sunworks opened this
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1,400 square foot greenhouse lab on the roof of the school gymnasium in 2010. because hydroponic growing systems are water-based, they are much lighter than their soil counterparts and easier to install on a roof. there are also several other benefits to hydroponic growing over traditional soil farms. it -- nutrient levels in water can be more easily controlled in soil, but water is constantly recirculated. >> how much does a greenhouse like this one cost? >> this one costs $850,000. yeah. so that sounds like a lot, but if you compare it to what a science lab costs, it's probably about the same. >> use aing combination of public money, grants, and private donations, new york sunworks helps design and build greenhouse labs that will suit each school's needs. the program's curriculum was designed to fulfill requirements
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mandated by the topics, it also encourages discussions about developing sustainable systems to help alleviate problems based in urban environments. >> tell me what have you guys built? what is it? >> it's a big -- it's an integrated lawn. >> what kinds of plants did you plant in yours? >> lettuce, basil, and carrots. >> this is something i could grow on my roof? >> yeah. >> if you want -- if you went to your landlord and asked him, can i grow some plants on the roof and he said sure, it's easier to get your food from a local place, and it's healthier and -- >> you're harvesting, do you select a large plant? >> with the help of the students, this particular greenhouse can produce up to 9,000 pounds of produce a year. more than the kids could ever eat, so this class of second graders voted to donate their
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greens to meals on wheels. >> we appreciate it. >> which delivered the produce to a senior citizens senior in midtown manhattan. >> so one of the great things about all the produce that they produce here is that it's a great way to connect to the community. >> just like the students, many businesses are also experimenting with hydroponic greenhouses, a point not lost on the kids. >> the kids are like who else has a greenhouse? they're starting to get really into it. we heard this high school has one. we know that they have a greenhouse over there, and what else can we do? >> with 20 more greenhouse labs in development, new york sunworks is well on its way to reaching its goal of 100 labs by 2020, and the trend is catching on in other parts of the country. new york sunworks has been contacted by school districts in colorado and oregon to bring the program to their state. with more commercial hydroponic farms opening up in oklahoma city, st. louis, and washington d.c., urban farming continues to
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grow. >> there's also a lot of science concepts in the farming systems. i think it's a great way to show kids that science is not just guys in white lab coats. it's actually everything that's around us. it's science for everyone because everyone needs a good science education. ♪ returning now to our top story. there's late word tonight that president obama and russian president vladimir putin spoke by telephone for 90 minutes this afternoon about the crisis in ukraine. the white house said the president condemned russia's military intervention this ukraine, a statement issued by the kremlin afterwards quoted putin as saying russia researches the right to protect its interests and those of russian speakers in ukraine. earlier today ukraine mobilized its forces after the russian parliament authorized sending russian troops there. russian troops have already
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seized control of crimea. thanks for watching. >> pbs news hour weekend is made possible by lewis b. and louise hershfeld coleman, judy and josh weston, joyce v. hail, the wallock family in memory of mile an hour yam and eila dean wallock, bernard and eileen schwartz, corporate funding is provided by mutual of america, designing customized, individual, and group retirement products. that's why we are your retirement company. additional support is provided by -- and by the corporation for public broadcasting and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you.
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-- captions by vitac --
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steves: i'm meeting my florentine friend tommaso at i fratellini, a venerable hole in the wall much loved among locals for its tasty sandwiches and wine sold by the glass. -grazie. -tommaso: thank you. and when you're done, you leave it on the rack.
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steves: boy, it's intense in the city. tommaso: yes, it is. well, if you want to leave the tourists, let's cross the river, and let's go to where the real florentines live and work. -steves: what's that? -tommaso: the oltrarno area. steves: there's much more to this town than tourism, as you'll quickly find in the characteristic back lanes of the oltrarno district. artisans busy at work offer a rare opportunity to see traditional craftsmanship in action. you're welcome to just drop in to little shops, but, remember, it's polite to greet the proprietor. your key phrase is, "can i take a look?" -posso guardare? -man: certo. steves: grazie. here in this great city of art, there's no shortage of treasures in need of a little tlc. this is beautiful. how old is this panting? woman: this is a 17th-century painting. steves: from florence? woman: we don't know. -maybe the area is genova. -steves: genova. each shop addresses a need with passion and expertise. fine instruments deserve the finest care.
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grand palaces sparkle with gold leaf, thanks to the delicate and exacting skills of craftspeople like this. a satisfying way to wrap up an oltrarno experience is to enjoy a florentine steakhouse, which any italian meat lover knows means chianina beef. the quality is proudly on display. steaks are sold by weight and generally shared. the standard serving is about a kilo for two, meaning about a pound per person. so, both of those for four people? woman: yes. steves: the preparation is simple and well established. good luck if you want it well done. man: i am hungry, yeah. oh, look at this. ah! steves: oh, beautiful. [ laughs ] man: wow. steves: chianina beef. -woman: white beans. -steves: okay. perfect. man: and that one. steves: so, the meat is called chianina. tommaso: that's its name, because it comes from the chianti.
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steves: oh, from chianti. okay. and tell me about this concept of the good marriage of the food, you know? tommaso: well, when you have the chianina meat, you want to have some chianti wine, and they go together well. they marry together. we say, "si sposano bene." steves: si sposano bene. a good marriage. in other words, the wine is from tuscany, -and the meat is from tuscany. -tommaso: exactly. you don't want to have a wine from somewhere else. that's it.
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